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43 Cards in this Set
The Book of Songs (Shi Jing)
aka Book of Oaths
-the earliest collection of folk songs in Traditional China
-W. Zhou period mostly, some from Spring and Autumn Period
-form part of the Five Classics.
-most famous is Guan Sui
-typical style is called Fu Bi Xing, straight forward narrative/ individual phenomena, bi= juxtapose, xing= production of the new meaning/enligtenment
In other words, Guan Sui begins with the description of a natural object, then tells a story about people (fu) then compares them (bi) and afterwards you get a new meaning (xing)
-every line has a rhyming ending and they all have the same rhythm
Dream of the Red Chamber
What: A Chinese autobiography of Cao Xueqin and his family.
- the novel has detailed observation of the life and social structures of the 18th century Qing dynasty aristocrats
The Forbidden City
When 1407-1420 Ming Dynasty, emperor Yongle
What: the residence of the emperor and his family. Thousands of rooms
yin and yang used in the design, and incorporated Taoist notions. divided into 2 parts, North- inner palace (yin), South -outer palace (yang)
People weren't allowed in or out without the permission of the emperor
-A visitor was meant to feel intimidated by the grandeur upon arrival
The Tributary System
Who: China and various other states, such as Bengal, sri lanka, sumatra,
What: countries interacting with China would offer a tribute to the Emperor in recognition of their subservience to the Ruler of Heaven. As part of their offering, the delegate would kneel in front of the emperor 3 times, and bow 9 times. Tribute countries would then receive plentiful gifts from the emperor and protection from other nations in exchange for their subjugation to China.
when: From beginning of Chinese Empire to end of 19th Century and defeat by Japan in the Sino-Japanese war
Why: Because the Chinese thought of China as the "Middle Kingdom" and "Center of the World" (Zhong Guo), they required offerings and a display of subservience from all nations they came in contact with
Significance/ Consequences: This was China's default foreign policy until the Cohong system set up a trade guild to deal with foreign trade. China had influence over a large part of Asia through this system unti lthe Opium War and Treaty System ripped China open.
When: first war (1839 - 1842), second (1856- 1860)
Who: The Anglo- Chinese War or Opium Wars were fought between the UK and the Quing Dynasty of China
What:It was the most humiliating defeat China ever suffered. By the 1830s, the English had become the major drug-trafficking particularly opium (that they grew in India and shipped into Canton and traded for Chinese manufactured goods and tea). This trade had produced a country filled with drug addicts, and an outbreak of violence an corruption btwn smugglers and officials. The British traders bribed Canton officials in order to keep the opium traffic going regardless of the effects on chinese society which were devastating.
Why/How:The result of the British gov't trying to find a solution to the imbalance of trade between Britian and China. China had too much silver.
The Sino-Japanese War
When: 1894- 1995
Who: China vs Japan fighting for the control of Korea
Although the Qing had more ships, they were defeated by a smaler but technologically superior Japanese force.
Treaty of Shimonoseki, 1895
As a result: Independence of Korea, war reparation of 200 mil taels, opening of 4 ports, ceding of Taiwan and Liaodong to Japan, and Japanese factories in China
The Boxer Rising
The Boxer Rebellion was an uprising of the Yihetuan, who were a cult of Daoist deities based on the "eight trigrams" who sought to support the Qing and eliminate the foreign influence. they were first opposed by the qing court but as the qing sought to expel the foreigners, the invited the boxers to thec court and the boxers attacked and sacked many christian churches and missionaries and foreign embassies. when the boxers attempted to attack the embassies in Beijing, reinforcements from the Eight-Nation alliance consisting of soldiers from Britain, USA, Japan, Russia, Germany, France, Austria, and Italy quelled the rebellion. The Qing court was forced to sign the Boxer Protocol, which executed Boxer supporters, erect monuments for the Westerners that were killed, ban exams in cities that committed atrocities against foreigners, station international forces along the route to Beijing, and made China pay 430 million taels over 39 years.
The Treaty System
who: China, western powers (England, America, France...)
what:China was a sinocentric country prior to the fall of the Qing empire. They believed that the entire world under heaven was under the property of the emperor (son of heaven) and that all other nations were barbarians. China never really dealt with nations except for the tributary system. After the fall of the Qing empire, China began suffering losses to foreign powers. China was now actively interacting with foreign powers through treaties. The treaty system describes the numerous treaties that China conceded to for various reasons (mainly after losing a battle). Some treaties included the Treaty of Nanjing, Treaty of Tianjin, Treaty of 1885, Treaty of Shimonoseki, etc All the treaties ended up hurting China
-loss of territorial entity (cession of land; spheres of influence; concessions)
-Extraterritoriality (being exempt from local law)
- most favored nation status
-large sums of war indemnity (China had to pay war costs after losing the battles)
-loss of tariff autonomy (fixed rate of 5% imported goods, set and controlled by foreign powers)
Who: Hong Xiuquan
What: He established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in Nanjing, and contained at it's height 30 mil ppl. The Qing eventually defeated the forces with the help of British and French forces.
-Hong Xiuquan (1814-1864) was declared the song of God, saw a vision of golden haired person, brother of Jesus, preached Christianity in China
-Programs Land System: abolition of private ownership, equal distribution to men and women (al ppl created equally); surplus products to public storehouse
-Social Policies: equality btwn men and women, bans on: ancestor- worship, idols and temples, opium smoking, prostitution, dancing, use of tobacco and wine, foot-binding, sale of slaves, gambling, polygamy
Why failed: 1. anti-chines tradition 2. internal strife a) Heavenly King (Hong) some of the other kings killed each other 3. foreigners a.) b41860: protestant missionaries: sympathetic, foreign traders: mixed feelings, Foreign gov't: wait and see
b.) After 1860: Siding with the imperial gov't, Frederick T. Ward: "ever-victorious Army" to defend Shanghai
The Self-Strengthening Movement
What: This movement is characterized as an effort to implement Western technology in China so that the Chinese could match the power of the West and then ultimately surpass them. They key basis for believing that this would work was, "Chinese learning as the fundamental structure, Western learning for practical use." In other words, the Chinese believed that they could adopt Western arms, science, and technology, while conserving Confucian values, and that with this value system the Chinese could leap ahead into modern times.
When:Qing Dynasty froom 1861-1895
Who:Key ppl during this movement were Zeng Guofan, Li Hongzhang, Zhang Zhidong, and Robert Hart. Zhen, a scholar official, and Li, his assistant, set up an arsenal in Shanghai to make gun and gunboats. These men were 2 of the most dedicated supporters of the Self Strengthening Movement. Zhang and Li were rivals, and he established an iron foundry, military schools, and technical schools for telegraphy, mining... Robert Hart was a British consular official in China who tried to initiate reforms such as establishing a modern mint and a national post office. The Manchu gov't rejected his reforms because they refused to allow a foreigner to play an active role in the gov't.
Where:the creation of arsenals was a large part of the reform, and took place in coastal cities like Shanghai. There were mines, schools, and other projects that were created in upcoming industrial cities in diff parts of the country.
Conclusion: Ultimately, the movement failed. The few reforms that were successful brought idealistic reform as well, and Western culture threatened to replace traditional Confucian values. Conservative officials like the Empress Dowager Cixi were afraid of this change, so they put an end to many projects
When: Occurring over a span of 104 days in 1898-1898
Who: Guangxu, emperor of the Qing empire
What: 112 edicts issued during 101 days. Specifically, the edics included reform of the civil service exam, the establishment of an imperial university, the abolishment of redundant gov't offices, the appointment of progressives in gov't, the encouragement of suggestions from citizens, the improvement and simplification of legal codes, the promotion of industrialization and infrastructure development, and the sending of high officials to tour foreign countries. The reforms were however met with fierce opposition from the conservative ruling class who viewed them as too radical and fast paced, and feared the progressives entering would take over. They continued w/a much more gradual plan with minor changes being applied over a long time period.
Consequences: Many conservative officials in the Court believed that the reforms went too far,. This resulted in a palace coup in which the Empress Dowager Cixi took control, halted the reforms, and had many young progressives beheaded. This caused disillusionment in China in ppl who began to doubt the ability of the Qing gov't to reform.
A leader of the "Self-Strengthening" Movement
He strongly believed that the western domination came from the superiority of their weapons. He believed that if China was going to strengthen, it must learn to use Western machinery.
Who: He was a precocious scholar from Guangzhou, he was a leader in the Nationalist Revolution. wrote 2 books: a study of the forged classics of the Xin, and Memorials to the Emperor
What:Attacks the authenticity of the Ancient texts upon which the Neo-Confucian tradition was founded since the Song. He argued that the Confucian classics were forged, and this meant that all the books/classics the Chinese had to memorize were pointless. The first emperor of the Xin had the books burned, then during the Han some books were found. Youwei says that these books were fabricated by Confucian disciples.
-He wrote 2 books, and in "Memorials to the Emperor", he wanted to modernize China and create a Western style gov't.
Consequences: Youwei inspired the young emperor, Emperor Guangxu, to adopt some of the reforms in the Hundred Day Reform, - reform civil service exam, establish an imperial university, abolish sincure and unnecessary offices, appt progressives in gov't.
key suggestions such as the creation of a parliament and a Chinese constitution were not adopted by the emperor for being too Radical
Empress Dowager Cixi
Who: De fact Ruler of China of the Manchu Qing Dynasty. Originally a concubine, she had the emperor's only son, Tongzhi. Upon her husband's death, she ruled through Tongzhi, and eventually got rid of him. Upon his death she installed her nephew Guangxu, but she never gave up her power of the court and had the general as an ally. She lead a coup in the court after she felt threatened especially by the progressives in the Hundred Day's Reform. The new progressives were fired, some beheaded. She placed Guangxu under house arrest and ruled for the rest of her life.
Significance: Some of the reforms of Guangxu were enacted in the New Policies, lots of them destroyed. Rule by woman for nearly 50 yrs. Imperial Exam System abolished, Caused the self-strengthening movement to be short on money due to her embezzling funds to build her Summer Palace.
When: 9/16/1859 -6/6/1916, Spanning the Last Qing Dynasty, Republic of China
What:Important Chinese general and politician famous for his influence during the late Qing Dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Empress of China, his autocratic rule as the first President of the Republic of China, and his short-lived attempt to revive the Chinese monarchy, with himself as the "Great Emperor of China".
Significance: Rose to fame by participating in the First -Sino-Japanese War as the commander of the Chinese stationary forces in Korea
- Aided in the coup of Guangxu Emperor by Empress Dowanger. Found out the plans to rescue the Emperor and turned them over to the Empress' general, powerful army in China
- HeHe created a 1000- strong police force to keep order in Tianjin, the first kind in Chinese History
-Gaining the regard of foreigners when he helped to crush the Boxer Rebellion, he successfully obtained numerous loans to expand hisBeiyang Army into the most powerful army in China
-During exile, both the revolutionaries and the Qing Court wanted him on their side. Eventually he gave into the Qing Court and became prime minister of the Sun
-Sun Yat-sen fled to Japan and called for a 2nd revolution against Yuan Shikai. Yuan gradually took over the gov't, building from the support base of his military power. he dissolved the national and provincial assemblies
-The KMT's "Second Revolution" ended in disastrous failure, as Yuan's military might on all sides decimated the remaining KMT forces
-whith his power secure, many of yuan's supporters advocated for revival of the monarchy, asking yuan to take on the title of Emperor. Yuan held a political convention which unanimously endorsed monarchy on 20 nov 1915. By 12 Dec 1915, he declared himsef his reign as Emperor of the Chinese Empire.
-Opposition mounted against him, especially from the revolutionaries and their leader Sun Yat-Sen. Sun fled to Tokyo, Provinces rebelld. Seeing his weakness and unpopularity, foreign powers, including Japan, withdrew support. More provinces rebelled until Yuan died from Uremia on 5 June
Who: The father of the Republic
What: based idea of revolution on three principles of the people: Nationalism, democracy, and ppl's livelihood. First, Chinese gov't should be in the hands of the Chinese rather than foreign imperial house. Gov't should be republican and democratically elected. Finally land ownership should be equalized among ppl, and wealth distributed evenly.
Why: Played a role in overthrowing the Qing Dynasty, and was the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded and later served as first leader to the KMT. Helped revive China.
The Revolution of 1911
this revolution began with the Wuchang Uprising that took place on 10/10/1911 (day still celebrated in Taiwan). This uprising was started because the Wuchang province was angry with the Qing gov't. they believed the gov't was corrupt and weak against interventions from foreign powers. So the province decided to declare independence from the Qing (Manch gov't). this started a chain reactoin leading to the provinces surrounding the Wuchang to also start declaring independence and creating their own unique forms of gov't. there were 2 gov't at the time: the Qing gov't in Beijing and the Republican gov't in Nanjing. When the Beijing gov't saw themselves losing control they turned to Yuan Shikai because they believed he was the only one that could help the Qing survive. They made him Prime Minister and Chief of the New Army. Sun Yat-Sen believed the only was to bring Qing gov't to an end was to persuade Yuan Shikai to join the revolutionaries. Yuan did help the revolutionaries and later became pres of the Republic of China.
this revolution led to the direct downfall of the Qing.
• His major achievements include: national unification, tariff autonomy, financial reforms, abolition of concessions, infrastructure constructions, and education and research. However, his failures include: dictatorship, government corruption, and rural policies. One should note his five “annihilation campaigns” (1930-34) (lecture). Chiang Kai-shek was a political and military leader of 20th century China. He was an influential member of the Kuomintang (KMT) and Sun Yat-sen's close ally. He took Sun's place in the party when the latter died in 1925. In 1928, Chiang led the Northern Expedition to unify the country, becoming China's overall leader. He served as chairman of the National Military Council of the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China (ROC) from 1928 to 1948. Chiang led China in the Second Sino-Japanese War, during which the Nationalist Government's power severely weakened, but his prominence grew. Chiang's Nationalists engaged in a long standing civil war with the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). After the Japanese surrender in 1945, he attempted to eradicate the CCP. Ultimately, bolstered by support from Soviet Russia, the CCP defeated Chiang, forcing the Nationalist government to retreat to Taiwan, where martial law was continued while the government still tried to take back mainland China. Chiang ruled the island with an iron fist as the President of the Republic of China and Director-General of the Kuomintang until his death in 1975.
1. Right opportunism communist
thought that capitalism was the most important thing China need to learn.
Believed that Chinese should step back and cooperate with the GMD (Nationalist Party) and accept their leadership
-stepped down after the April Coup
-Early leadership of the CCP
- Leftist adventurism
The May Fourth Movement
Who:Student representatives from thirteen different local universities, and eventually China as a whole
When:May 4, 1919Often refers to the period during 1915-1921 more usually called the New Culture Movement.
What: An anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student demonstrations in Beijing protesting the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially the Shandong Problem. These demonstrations sparked national protests and marked the upsurge of Chinese nationalism, a shift towards political mobilization and away from cultural activities, and a move towards populist base rather than intellectual elites.
Students in Beijing went on strike, and students in other parts of the country responded one after another. In order to support the students' struggle, workers and businessmen in Shanghai also went on strike.In addition to students, a wide array of different groups also publicly displayed disagreement with the Chinese government.
• China entered WWI on the side of the Allies under the condition that all German held spheres of influence (like Shandong) be returned to China after the war. Under the Treaty of Versailles, however, the spheres of influence were handed over to Japan. China demanded a number of policies during the Paris Peace Conference but were denied and bullied by the larger Western powers. This event touched off the outbreak of the May Fourth Movement, and became known as the "Shandong Problem".
• Chinese government was weak and fractioned after the fall of the Qing Dynasty.
• As a result, the Chinese representatives in Paris refused to sign on the peace treaty, but this move was more symbolic than anything else.
• The partial success of the movement exhibited the ability of China's various social classes to successfully collaborate.
• The May Fourth Movement promoted the spreading of Marxism in China, and prepared the ideological foundation for the establishment of the Chinese Communist Party. It led to the establishment of radical intellectuals who went on to mobilize peasants and workers into the Communist party and gain the organizational strength that would solidify the success of the Communist Revolution.
• The May Fourth Movement served as an intellectual turning point in China that radicalized Chinese intellectual thought. Western-style liberal democracy was previously attractive, but after the Versailles Treaty it lost much of its attractiveness.
The Communist Revolution
Birth of Chinese communism
The “new culture” movement (1915-1920’s) under Chen Duxiu- rejecting traditionalism in place of “wholesome westernization.” Popular to people who were frustrated with lack of modernization.
-The May Fourth Movement (anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement by students)
-Russian Revolution in 1917
-translation of The Communist Manifesto into Chinese (1920)
-Birth of CCP, 7/1/1921: help from Comintern, Chen Duxiu as general secretary
Communism became so popular in China because of frustration with Western imperialism and strong nationalist feelings, this desire the radical Marxism more so than liberal western systems.
-First GMD-CCP alliance (1924-1927)- eliminate Warlordism and unify China. GMD under Chiang Kai-Shek establishes Nationalist government
-Chen Duxiu replaced by Li Lisan
-Rise of Mao (strategies: base areas in rural china, land reform, social reform, guerilla tactics), however, exiled when targeted as a warlord. During 1935 Zunyi Conference, retook power from Otto Braun and Bu Go, de facto leader of CCP until death.
-second GMD-CCP alliance (1937-1945)- unite to fight off Japanese from Manchuria
-The Civil War (1945-1949)- starts out GMD (1.6 mil) to (.98 mil) and CCP (.116 mil) to (.97 mil)
-In 1948 CCP soldiers enter Beijing and are able to defeat GMD by next year. Why did GMD lose? – strategic mistakes, lack of cooperation (army as confederation of warlords), low morale and defection, intelligence work of CCP, loss of popular support—inflation
-In Mao’s “New Democracy” (1940’s) goals of communist revolution are formulated- a new democratic revolution where society is based on a coalition of a number of social classes
nature of new democracy: revolution against imperialism and feudalism
leadership: the CCP
final goal: socialism
22. AGRICULTURAL COLLECTIVIZATION
WHAT: 3 phases:
1. “Mutual-Aid Teams” (early 1950s)
- a few households
- excluding former landlords and rich peasants
- private ownership of land and tools
- private ownership of harvest
- government aid
- disputes on the sequence of teamwork
- seasonal or permanent
2. “Early Stage Cooperatives” (1954-1955)
- a group of households (usually 10-30) in the same neighborhood/hamlet
- excluding former landlords and rich peasants
- leadership of poor peasants
- private ownership and collective use of land and tools
- shared harvest
- income distribution in the co-op
- land share (dividends)- 45%
- labor share (work points)- 55%
- government aid
- strong motivation for increasing production
3. “Advanced Stage Cooperatives” (1956-1957)
a. based on former “Early Stage Cooperatives”
b. consisting of production teams
c. open to all peasants
d. collective ownership of land and tools
e. income distribution according to work points
f. inefficiency in collective farming
g. corruption of co-op cadres
WHY: part of China’s transformation into Socialism
Great Leap Forward
what:The Great Leap Forward was an economic and social plan used from 1958to 1961 which aimed to transform China's agrarian economy into amodern society. It aimed to modernize China's economy that rivaled theUS. “Catching up with UK in 15 years, Catching up to US in 30 years”.Mao's plan was to target and develop industry and agriculture. Controlof the agriculture meant the ability to control prices. The governmentcould then buy low and sell high to support their industryplans.(Industry needed well fed workers, agriculture workers neededindustry to produce tools).To do this, China was reformed into a series of communes. There wereabout 5,000 households in the commune. People in communes wereprovided for so all they had to focus on was work(education,healthcare, entertainment, etc). People worked for commune and not forthemselves(Mao wanted control of agriculture). Communes also had“back-yard” production plants that produced steel. This helped in theindustrialization goals that Mao had wanted. The great leap forwardconsisted of 3 topics: “wind of arbitrary orders”, “wind ofexaggeration”(propaganda telling people communes were wonderful), andthe “wind of communization”.
Although the Great Leap forward was able to successfully mobilizeworkers to make vast changes, the Great Leap Forward proved to bedevastating. In the 1960's, many people died during this time. Overreported harvests were sold abroad and most of the grain harvests wereexhausted. Bad weather, improperly constructed water controlprojects, and other mismanagement of resources contributed to thefamine. In 1958, 200 million tons of food was produced. In 1961, only148 million tons was produced (barely able to sustain the population).It is estimated that 40 million people died.
Failed because of the 3 winds: 1. The wind of arbitrary orders 2. The wind of exaggeration 3. The wind of communization
The Anti-Rightist Campaign
What: A campaign to purge the rightists from the CCP, instigated by Mao.
Why/ background: Mao’s reaction to complaints against him was to launch the Hundred Flower’s Policy, in which free speech/debate against the Chinese government was encouraged. Liberal policies for scientists, artists, and intellectuals were enacted. But, after the riots and strikes in the Communist countries (such as Poland and Hungary), Mao launched the Anti Rightist Campaign in 1957. Now, any person who had previously spoken against the government during the Hundred Flower’s Policy was labeled as a rightist.
Who targeted?: 550,000 people targeted as rightists in China such as: people who had spoken up during the Hundred Flower’s Policy, those who opposed socialism, those who organized anti-government groups, and those who provided support to the rightists.
Lots of government officials were purged. As evidenced from Wild Swans, many people used this to make a personal gain, such as getting someone’s position or for vengeance. In Wild Swans, the mother had to give a certain amount of names in her school who would be labeled as rightists, or she would be labeled as one.
Results: the campaign intimidated the Chinese intellectuals, and none would dare to Challenge the CCP again. The people identified as leaders in the rightist groups were put in jail or sent to labor camps indefinitely ( or until Liu Shaoqi started to reverse the effects of the campaign). Resentment of Mao from the people grew.
The Cultural Revolution
Who: Mao - the Republic of China, and transition into communism.
What: 1. The rise of redgaurds: Mobilizing at the commoner level. 2. Seizure of Power: lots of propaganda, ordinary workers, students and farmers given the position of liberal officials, these replacement were all red guards. 3. Establishing “ Revolutionary Committees”: Three elements solider worker and student. Traditional customs were banned, everyone must use revolutionary language and customs. 4. Lin Biao incident, 1971 : Responsible for much of the red guard mobilization, became written successor of Mao according to constitution, became so anxious for power he tried to have Mao killed.
Where - China
Why: For Chinese people it shaped their way of living, views of society.
-60% of Party and government officials ousted from office
-About 400,000 people died of maltreatment
-Government system paralyzed and replaced by “Revolutionary Committees”
-Cultural traditions destroyed as “Four Olds” (old ideas, culture, customs, habits)
-Impacts on the world
- HuaGuofeng: “Double whatever”- reputation and experiences were on par with Mao, tried to observe whatever Mao had made, intellectuals and gov’t officials wanted change; salaries remain the same for decades
- The Third Plenum of the 11th CCP Congress, 1978- agricultural production tried to increase by bringing back incentives, etc; come back to lead the country; HuaGuofeng conceded to Deng Xiaoping as Chairman of the military commander of CCP;
o Top positions are General Secretary of the Party
Political Reforms under Deng Xiaoping- appointed General Secretary HuYaobang and Premier Zhao Ziyang
- Collective leadership- 1950s (Mao had accepted collective leadership)
- Fixed term of office elevating the People’s Congress-
o previous Mao era- officials stayed for life, and party leaders there until 1976; could only be demoted when made a mistake
o top Party leaders have fixed term of 5 years; general secretary or president of the People’s Republic; can be elected for one more term; maximum of 10 years
- Elevating the People’s Congress
o Would not hesitate to reject proposal for Three Gorges Dam; permanently change ecology of nearby communities
o Increasing number of candidates that either refrain from voting or veto the proposal
- Multi-candidate election
o Government provides 7 candidates, two more candidates that are not Party members
- Civil service exam system
o All gov’t officials used to be appointed by higher levels of candidates; can choose subordinates in MAO ERA
o More candidates picked from civil service exam
- Rule of avoidance
- Rule of law- constitution was abandoned; since 1980s foreign investment came to China; thousands of laws made to govern transactions
- Separation of the Party from the government
o Party is separate from the gov't in that the decision making is different
took place on April 5, 1976 at Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China. The incident occurred on the traditional day of mourning, the Qingming Festival, after Nanjing Incident, and was triggered by the death of Premier Zhou Enlai earlier that year. The public strongly disapproved of the removal of the displays of mourning, and began gathering in the Square to protest against the central authorities, then largely under the auspices of the Gang of Four, who ordered the Square to be cleared.
The event was labeled as counterrevolutionary immediately after its occurrence by the Communist Party's Central Committee and served as a gateway to the dismissal and house arrest of then-Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping, who was accused of planning the event. The Central Committee's decision on the event was reversed after Deng came to power in 1978, as it would later be officially hailed as a display of patriotism.
Public security forces acted during the night of April 4-5 and cleaned the area around the Monument. On April 5, tens of thousands of Beijing residents returned to the Monument in Tiananmen Square and were dismayed to find the wreaths and other commemorative materials removed. In addition, public security officers cordoned off the area around the Monument, preventing mourners from approaching.
The Household Responsibility System
For much of China's history agricultural production (specially during Mao's rule) was controlled by the state, and all yields went to the state who would then distribute the food how they saw fit. Regional areas were cordoned off and put under the control of state cadres who oversaw and controlled all aspects of the farmers life. During the 1980's a radical shift came in which the power was given back to the farmers in the form of the "Household Responsibility Program".
This program gave the farmers almost complete autonomous control over their land. They could decide what crops to grow and were able to sell them at market and in most cases the land tenure system was abolished. This program was enacted in order to increase yield and peasant happiness. Previously once quotas were met, there was no real motivation to produce past quota. After the household responsibility program was enacted, the more a farmer produced, the more he/she could earn.
Interestingly this change was not enacted by the government initially, in fact it was actually illegal. However peasants were becoming so desperate to survive that this system grew from the ground out of necessity. Fortunately the governors were foresighted enough to see the benefit of such a system.
The Household Registration System
Who: Instituted by the Communist Government
What: System enforced during the great leap forward as a way of managing population shifts through formal separation of rural and urban populations. People would be forced to present a proper registration booklet to purchase groceries or other goods, as well as to access benefits. All urban residents were guaranteed health care, education, food, etc. by the state, while childless elderly and orphans in rural areas were provided the “five guarantees” (food, clothing, housing, education, burial) by the local collectives.
When: Established in 1958 as part of the great leap forward, system deteriorated and was abolished around 2000
How: System was enforced through registration status identified by booklets issued to all citizens. Those that could not present the proper booklet (rural or urban) would be denied access to essential goods/services.
Significance/Consequences: Denial of goods/services essentially forced many people to leave the cities as well as preventing increased rural migration to urban areas. This, when combined with the differences in guaranteed benefits, created huge disparities between the urban and rural Chinese population.
WHO: The 8th General Secretary of the CCP, considered part of the “3rd generation” of the CCP; President of the People’s Republic of China
WHAT: created the “Three Represents of the CCP”
1. the requirements of the development of China’s advanced productive forces
2. the orientation of the development of China’s advanced culture
3. the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people in China
WHEN: General Secretary 1989-2002; President 1993-2003
WHY: has been told he legitimized capitalism within the CCP; wanted to raise himself to the level of the Marxist-Lenin thinking “Three Represents” written into the Chinese Constitution
HOW: made the middle class the backbone of Chinese society while marginalizing the working class; reduced the CCP’s role in society, focused on the wealthy/middle class people.
1. What are the most important changes in China’s foreign relations during the nineteenth century? What are the reasons and consequences of such changes?
I guess we could also mention that china came out of seclusion(not
from choice) and had more foreign relations through treaties.
Cohong System - System of trade in place at beginning of 19th
century. Guild of traders takes care of all foreign trade in port of
Guangzhou. The foreign traders are relegated to a strip of land
outside the walls of the city. China uses this system to remain
secluded from the rest of the world and maintain its 'civilized'
culture and customs.
Opium trade - Britain begins trading opium with China as 'medicine,'
trade soons gets out of hand and results in two Opium Wars which are
the first step in opening China up to the world. China is forced to
give up treaty ports, an embassy, ban the word for barbarian, and
allow free preaching of Christianity. This severely violates China's
pride and image as superior country around Asia. Sends a signal to
other imperialist nations that China can be played with.
Sino-French, Sino-Japanese wars - China loses both Vietnam and Korea
in these conflicts, basically robbing it of its status as a 'suzerain'
in Asia. The turning point is the Sino-Japanese war, where China is
forced to cede Taiwan and Liaodong to Japan as part of the treaty of
Shimonoseki. This leads to the scramble for concessions by the West.
China has officially lost control over its own territory, not just its
2. Compare the Taiping and Boxer rebellions: What spiritual means were used to mobilize the rebels? How did the rebels treat the Qing government and the West? What were the most important consequences of the rebellions?
• Due to British oppression caused by the opium war led to a massive
famine in China. The famine added to floods led to much popular anger
among the general population of Chinese. Hong Xiuquan was the leader
of the Taiping rebellion in the fused his movement with the aspects of
Old Testament Protestant Christianity. They also reverted this is his
heavenly Kingdom of great peace. Hong's view of Christianity was that
of the Old Testament that Jehovah was a righteous God and that he
supported rebellion. Hong also believe that he was the brother of
Jesus. His initial forces were that of novice communities of the
Guangxi west of Guangzhou. His followers feel that their faith had
ordained them to destroy the Manchu rule and set up a new order of
brotherhood and sisterhood among God's children. The Christian
religion differs from traditional views of Taoism and Buddhism because
it allowed a catalyst effect for the movement. By 1850 had mobilized a
force of 20,000 Christian warriors. The rebellion did have a
difference in class systems but they showed respect to the common
people which help motivate the common people join the forces and
fight. The Taiping imperialist war in China was the last the premodern
time so the combat was hand to hand with little used to modern
weapons. It is upon the stand of the struggle was mainly Chinese
against Chinese. It is also a part understand that this was a
religious war and so the leaders were inept and economic politics in
overall points. The forces that time were estimated to be up to
300,000 in the initial religious points or water down as the
revolution progressed. The rebellion could be seen as them trying to
create a godly state by their prohibiting usual evils gambling, opium,
tobacco, idolatry, adultery, prostitution, and foot binding. The main
failure of the rebellion is that they had no system in place to
actually control once they took over a province or region. In other
words it lacked any real chance of sustaining power. It is also
important to look at the map on 215 is shows that the Taiping
rebellion was overall very centralized movement.
• Christian Religious revolution movement
• had a hierarchy of top that respected the commoners
• Chinese versus Chinese
• enemy the Manchu's
• against the evils of society in the creation of a godly state
• 15 year rebellion
Hong Xiuquan- leader of the movement
God worshipers society- one of the name of the general people of the
heavenly kingdom of great peace- The title of the kingdom as a whole
Boxer Rebellion 1898-1901
the Boxer Rebellion was a pro Chinese movement to destroy foreign
control. It gets the main Boxer Rebellion due to its peasant starting
and since they were known for martial arts and a former shaman is a
known as Spirit boxing. The rising was started in the Northwest
Shandong region. The Qing Empire had to pass multitudes of laws that
were in favor of foreign powers such as pro-German mission and the
Shandong region. These Spirit boxers had rituals supposedly to make
them invulnerable versus sort of bullets which created a populist
movement with no leaders because anyone could be blessed with the
ritual. Empress Dowager decided to give support to the movement to
force out before the parallelism. The Empress declared war on all
powers. The attacks were mainly upon anyone of foreign-born such as
missionaries, diplomats and Chinese Christians. The Gov. Gen.'s
ignored the Beijing declaration of war any declare the whole thing
simply a rebellion. The fused alliance of Chinese governors and with
foreign soldiers to strike back at the populist movement and end the
fighting of the Boxer Rebellion. The boxer protocol signed in 1901 by
top Manchu prince and the top governor general in Li Hongzhang with 11
foreign powers was mainly punitive: such instruction in many popular
amenities in $333 million be paid back to the foreign powers.
• Chinese versus foreign powers
• rebellion had no hierarchal system
• common people movement
• head government support
• foreign intervention
stuff in common
• key issue of floods causing initial anger
• poor based mobilized
• Chinese were still fighting Chinese(government general forces)
3. Why did the Qing bureaucrats launch the Self-Strengthening movement? Was it successful? Why?
the self strengthening and movement takes place from the
1860s the 1890s in the main goal was the mobilization and
modernization of Chinese military.
Wei Yuan(1794-1887)-the three advanced techniques of the West which
included warships, firearms, methods of raising soldiers. He believed
in a two phase approach to learn techniques from the West or
barbarians and turned barbarians against each other. His ideas were
embraced by several generals in China such as Zou ZongTang, and Li
Hongzhang. They move Chinese in the future by modernization of the
military by embracing Western traditions, the industrialization of a
military complex with heavy emphasis upon naval ships, integration of
Western modern weapons such as cannons and rifles, and finally sending
children abroad to study foreign ways. They did not view the Western
style of government appropriate or useful to the Chinese public said
they still fell into the aspects of Kongzi theories of government.
Li Hongzhang “China’s civil and military institutions are I every way
superior to those of the Westerners. Only in weapons are the
Westerners unsurpassed …
“I believe that if China wishes to self-strengthen, the best thing to
do is to learn about the foreign weapons, and that to learn about the
foreign weapons, the best thing to do is to find out about the
machines which manufacture these weapons – to learn their methods so
as not to [need to] employ their people. If we want to seek the
machines which manufacture these weapons, and men to make them, we
might establish a special examination to recruit scholars …”
I feel that this quote really helps explains the perspective of the
generals of this time period. Now the major issues with this system
was it only focus on the military aspect of society there was no
growth on the economical side, the government side, the national
movement, and the military was also partly funded. But no failure
could really describe the self strengthening movement better than the
sino-Japanese war of 18494-1895. This tested the newly designed modern
Chinese naval against the Japanese. They lost they lost Korea in this
conflict with the signing of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. I focus on
this conflict in your essay as why failed.
4. Compare the Hundred Days’ Reform and the New Policies: Why did they happen? Who initiated them? What were the differences between the two movements? What were their results?
Why? This was in response to weaknesses exposed by China's defeat by
Japan in the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894-5, not long after the
Opium Wars; this blow came as a major shock to the Chinese, because
Japan had been a tributary state, was much smaller than China, and was
regarded as inferior. Moreover, the defeat of China by Japan led to a
scramble of 'privileges' in China by other foreign powers, notably the
German Empire and Russia, further awakening the stubborn
conservatives. The reformers declared that China needed more than
"self-strengthening" and that innovation must be accompanied by
institutional and ideological change.
Who: ideas by Kang Youwei (His ideas inspired a reformation movement
that was supported by the Guangxu Emperor but loathed by Empress
Dowager Cixi. Although he continued to advocate for constitutional
monarchy after the foundation of the Republic of China, Kang's
political ideology was never put into practical application) Guangxu
Emperor ordered the series of reforms.
Results: the movement proved to be short-lived, ending in a coup
d'état in1898 by powerful conservative opponents led by Empress
Dowager Cixi. Supported by ultraconservatives and having the tacit
support of the political opportunist Yuan Shikai, Empress Dowager Cixi
engineered a coup d'état on September 21, 1898, forcing the young,
reform-minded Guangxu into seclusion. The emperor was put under house
arrest within the Forbidden City until his death in 1908. Cixi then
took over the government as regent. The Hundred Days' Reform ended
with the rescinding of the new edicts and the execution of six of the
reform's chief advocates, together known as the "Six Gentlemen" The
two principal leaders, Kang Youwei and his student Liang Qichao, fled
to Japan to found the Baohuang Hui (Protect the Emperor Society).
Who? Empress dowager - still was impressed by the idea of reform even
though the lead the coup previously.
Why? such institutional reforms could no longer be delayed, in view of
the rise of revolutionary activities which aimed at overthrowing the
dynasty. the foreign powers made the Chinese aware of the unmistakable
superiority of the West. Thereafter, it was more or less agreed in
China that institutional reform was absolutely necessary. to
strengthen China to become a modern state
Results? The weak financial conditions of the Qing dynasty - From 1900
to 1911, government spending doubled, but income remained more or less
unchanged. As a result, the Qing dynasty found it increasingly
difficult to carry out long-term reform projects. For example, the
system of law courts reaching down to the districts was not completed
because of inadequate money. The deep social and cultural
conservatism of the people - Conservative opposition to the reform was
most serious in matters like legal changes. When a modern law code was
introduced by the Ch'mg government, Confucian scholars accused it of
violating Confucian family morality. Consequently, law codes had to
be revised again and again before they could be used. educational
reform created patriotic students and intellectuals who were
dissatisfied with and opposed to the Manchu rule. These students and
intellectuals promoted or joined revolutionary activities that finally
overthrew the Qing dynasty in 1911-12. Military reform led to the
establishment of, not loyal troops for the dynasty's protection, but
regional military forces practically independent of Peking's control.
he Late Qing Reform failed because the reform measures led to
developments that in the end weakened or even helped overthrow the
Qing dynasty. By 1911, the Manchu dynasty was isolated from all
support. The overseas students, the modern intellectuals, the local
provincial scholar-gentry, and the new armies -- all of whom the
dynasty helped produce -- were all disloyal to the dynasty. The
Manzhus had tried to work out a new basis of rule over a modern China
from 1901 to 1911. They failed, as it was too late to do so, and the
dynasty collapsed in 1911-12.
Differences: the educational reform (national education system) in the
new policies was different from any reform in the hundred days reform-
Educational reform created patriotic students and intellectuals who
were dissatisfied with and opposed to the Manchu rule. These students
and intellectuals promoted or joined revolutionary activities that
finally overthrew the Qing dynasty in 1911-12. Hundred days reform
wanted to revise the civil service exam and new policies removed it.
Hundred years was more democratic than new policies.
5. What were the reasons behind Mao Zedong’s rise to the CCP’s top leadership?
When: 1893 -1976
Strategy 1: Mao emphasized the creation of Base areas. rural occupation of industrialized areas. The cities are well defended by the GDP, and outnumbered them, and could easily defeat them, so the rebels need to w/draw from the city into the rural area, and not attack the big cities.
2.) We need to mobilize the peasants by creating land reform. Give land to farmers. He gave women the opportunity to divorce/choose their husband- he mobilized women through Social Reform
3.) Guerrilla tactics- primitive weapons to GDP, so they realized they had to avoid fighting them face to face. To survive, guerilla tactics were used.
Mao's Red Army had survived and won 4/5 annihilation campaigns against them btwn 1930-34.
The Long March (1934-35): 6,000 miles
Chiang, who had earlier assumed nominal control of China due in part
to the Northern Expedition, was determined to eliminate the
Communists. By October 1934, he had them surrounded, prompting them to
engage in the "Long March," a retreat from Jiangxi in the southeast to
Shaanxi in the northwest of China. It was during this 9,600 kilometer
(5,965 mile), year-long journey that Mao emerged as the top Communist
leader, aided by the Zunyi Conference and the defection of Zhou Enlai
to Mao's side. At this Conference, Mao entered the Standing Committee
of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China.
Zunyi meeting: Jan. 1935
The Zunyi Conference was a meeting of the Communist Party of China
(CPC) in January of 1935 during the Long March. This meeting involved
a power struggle between the leadership of Bo Gu and Otto Braun and
the opposition led by Mao Zedong. The result was that Mao left the
meeting in position to take over military command and become the
leader of the Communist Party.
6. What were the major steps leading to the creation of a socialist economy in China in the 1950s?
In 1949, China followed a socialist heavy industry development
strategy. Consumption was reduced while rapid industrialization was
given high priority. The government took conrol of a large part of the
economy and redirected resources into building new factories. Entire
new industries were created. The steps that lead to the creation of a
socialist economy included:
Socialist Transformation of Industry and Commerce : Transformation of
private ownership into “joint state-private ownership” completed in
major cities, Jan. 1956; Transformation completed in the whole
country, by the end of 1956
Agricultural Collectivization: I'm sure you guys can expand on this.
The Great Leap Forward: Again, you guys can expand on this.
7. Why did Mao launch the Great Leap Forward campaign? Why did campaign fail and what were its consequences?
1. Boost agricultural and industrial productions.
2. Push socialist China closer to communism.
Socialism VS Communism
• Socialism – Distribution according to abilities.
• Communism – Distribution according to needs.
• Under communism, all property is owned by all members of society.
Unit of production is much larger.
When Stalin was still alive, Mao borrowed everything from Soviet
Russia. After Stalin’s death, Nikita Khrushchev came into power as
First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Khrushchev
took measures to de-Stalinize the Soviet Union and openly criticized
Stalin and his policies. As the communist leader of China, the largest
communist country, Mao saw Khrushchev as his competitor and realized
the need to reform. Mao was embarrassed that China was way backwards
compared to the industrialized Soviet Union. This became the
motivation behind the Great Leap Forward program.
* Boosting agricultural and industrial productions
* “catching up with the UK in 15 yrs”
* “catching up with the US in 30”
• The “Wind of Arbitrary Orders”. Inexperienced leaders wasted labor
on useless projects.
• The “Wind of Exaggeration”. In reporting output, leaders would
• The “Wind of Communication”. Intended as the bridge to communism.
People lived a new style of life. People in each commune worked
together. Family life was transformed. Private stoves were destroyed
and people had to eat together in huge cafeterias. Food was free, and
at the beginning, waste of food was everywhere.
Each people’s commune competed to increase its agricultural
production. Consequently, communes began reporting false information.
Initially, agricultural output was exaggerated slightly but soon grew
completely out of control. Some communes reported ridiculous increases
in production (100%-200%) when in actually, production decreased from
the previous year. The government would procure grain from a commune
according to its output, so when these new “high-yield” rice fields
reportedly increased production dramatically, procurement of grain
increased with it. This left little to no food for the farms to
Small and primitive furnaces were built in an effort to increase
production of steel and iron. However, the iron that was produced was
of very low quality and useless.
Disastrous problems resulted from the Great Leap Forward. Agricultural
output from 1958-61 declined. Wide-spread famine spread throughout
China, killing an estimated 20-30 (maybe 40) million people. A huge
flood devastated the nation and further exacerbated the situation.
Mao’s radical policy and natural disasters caused the greatest
population loss in Chinese history during peace times.
By this time, all of China’s ties to the Soviet Union were broken. The
Russian government encouraged all Russian nationals in China to leave.
With the departure of Russian engineers and intellectuals, industrial
development in China was stalled. The Great Leap Forward also impacted
future policies and the attitude of the Chinese people towards their
government. Mao received opposition from his ministers and lost some
8. Discuss the nature of the Cultural Revolution by analyzing its origins, process, and consequences.
Predicting ultimate blame to be placed on him for the dire
consequences of his Great Leap Forward, in 1959 Mao voluntarily
stepped down as Chairman of the People's Republic of China (a mere
formality, as he still retained his position of authority), and
assumed the lesser position of State Chairman - though he still
maintained defense of the Great Leap Forward. After stepping down,
Mao allowed Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping to effectively rule. Seeing
his power shifting away, Mao quickly began the Socialist Education
Movement in 1963, aimed at regaining a political base amongst the
youth, and utilizing his almost deified cult of personality. The
conflict between Mao and Shaoqi progressively escalated, with Mao
renewing his traditional call for class struggle, proclaiming that it
must be “applied yearly, monthly, and daily”, in accordance with his
concept of permanent revolution. In 1966, the Cultural Revolution
formally commenced, with Mao called up on the youth to for Red Guard
units to carry out violent class struggle to rid the China of the
“liberal bourgeois” influenced the he claimed now existed throughout
the country with intent to restore capitalism.
There were mainly four parts: 1) the rise of Red Guards.
These were young men that held “revolution against tradition” as their
central value. They study the “little red book” which is Mao’s words
(it’s like their bible) they travel around the country, eventually to
Beijing, to be received by Mao. 2) seizure of power. “To kick traitor
Liu out of the party” is what they said. 70 percent of the government
leaders lost their position, many were forced out of their position by
the red guards, they either lost their freedom, were sent to jail, and
many were killed. The red guards burnt down buildings and burnt away
literatures. 3) the Lin Biao incident (the turning point) Lin was the
very dear right hand of Mao, without him, the revolution would not
have taken place. He turned out scheming to kill Mao, but the planned
was exposed. Lin ran away and died in a air crash. This brought the
revolution to an end. The revolution was a big harmed to the country,
economically, eight hundred billion was wasted, this much money took
China more than 30 years to make. Government system was paralyzed, and
was replaced by the “Revolutionary Committees” which was not a big
help to the country. More than 20 million innocents were killed (many
believed there were more). The precious Chinese culture data
(literature, historical data) were destroyed.
9. How did Chinese economy in the reform era differ from that in the Mao era? What are the major reform measures in rural and urban China since the 1980s?
In traditional Maoist organization of the rural economy, and that of
other collectivised programs, farmers are given a quota of goods to
produce. They were compensated for meeting the quota. Going beyond the
quota rarely produced a sizeable economic reward. In the early 1980s
peasants were given drastically reduced quotas. What food they grew
beyond the quota was sold on a free market at unregulated prices. This
was an instant success, quickly causing one of the largest increases
in standard of living for such a large number of people in such a very
small space of time. This system maintained quotas, and thus, the
element of socialist societies termed in China, the Iron Rice Bowl (in
which food and employment was ensured by the state).
10. Compare the political systems during the Mao and reform eras, and explain where they are different from each other and where they remain the same?
Campaign/elections. Reform era- now there are multi candidate
elections, so there is a chance that someone will not be elected, more
competition. Although under Mao and the new era, the candidates are
elected by the party. Under reform, there has to be a majority
consensus between the bureaucracy that heads China, unlike under Mao
where it was his ultimate rule. Now your terms are fixed, under mao,
terms were for life, also called the "iron bowl".
The Opium Wars
Second Opium War
- the Imperial gov't made Opium illegal in 1836 and began to aggressively close down opium dens. Main guy was LIN ZEXU; who was sent to investigate Canton with the purpose to cut off the opium trade by rooting out corrupt officials nad cracking down on British trade in the drug. In March 1839, he shut down all the traffic in opium by suspension of foreign trade and confiscated 20,000 chests. He requested to Queen Victoria, England, that they cease all opium trade, since it was illegal in England. At the time there was no treaty btwn the 2 countries.Lin threatened to cut off all trade w/England and expel English from China. The war began.
-Opium war broke out when the Chinese attempted to turn back English merchant vessels in Nov.1839. the English sent warships in 1840 and defeated the Chinese. 1n 1842, the Chinese were forced to agree to peace under the Treaty of Nanjing after continual defeats from the British.
-Sig/Consequence: British resumed drug trafficking in China, marked the end of isolation and the beginning of modern Chinese history. The treaty is called the unequal treaty
Second Opium war- Again btwn Uk and French Empire vs China, 1856-60. trade in Canton and other ports remained restricted; the British were outraged by what they felt was clear treaty violations. the Chinese were angered at the export of Chinese nationals to America and the Caribbean to work for no better than slave labor. these conflicts came to a head in 1856, and ended in 1860. A second set of treaties further humiliated and weakened Imperial gov't. Treaty of Tianjin 1858
The Treaty of Nanjing
1. grants indemnity to Britan 2. opening of treaty ports 3. hong kong ceded to queen victoria for 100 yrs. 4. british and british citizens would be subject to British, not Chinese law if they committed crime on Chinese soil 5. Britan established as "most favored nation" trading w/China 6. the british don't have to pay a tribute to the imperial admin in order to trade w/china 7 war reparation- 21 mil silver dollars 8. no restrictions were placed on british trade, and as a consequence, opium trade more than doubled in the 3 decades following the treaty of nanjing
Treaty of Tianjin
2nd opium war, 1858
1. taxation of opium (legalization of opium trade) 2. Free preaching of Christianity 3. War reparation 8 mil silver 4. opening of more ports
-as a result of these unequal treaties many rebellions began to take place in China, ex, The Taiping Rebellion